Landing Snow

January 6, 2008 10:15 PM | Alaskan Eagles

Landing Snow

Denuded Land Management

Denuded Land Management

 by ghulam mohyuddin wani

 

A good chunk of land under deforestation in past decades have become nude, which runs into millions of hectares has been reclaimed or afforested; still its regeneration has been slow and costly.  True its financial management needs critical analysis but there are other unknown causes for this slow a forestation drive.  This paper shall discuss some of the factors which deterred the growth of newly seeded or planted forests.

 

Land laws.

Much of the grazing lands have been occupied and used either for cultivation, industrialization, and housing or left unmanaged.  Much of the deforestation can be ascribed to pressures on cultivable lands which forced occupation of forest lands.  This conversion of forest to farm land has been the result of weak administrative control; corrupt political system and exploitation of resource.  Accumulation, of property, land, money and other material resources were directly linked to deforestation for other purposed, be it agriculture or housing.  Thus the denudation of land can be rightly ascribed to the poor will of foresters, rangers, village headman, revenue officials, political and beurocratic officers at helm of affairs including security/police.

  1. This is the result of less than required 33% of forest in this region at present

 

Effluence & wealth scores

 

The grabbing of land by interested influential people of the villages and towns, led to its use for non-agricultural purposes like building industrial infrastructure, roads, schools, hospital, & other basic amenities like housing colonies in pasture lands.  This forced tribesman, nomads and livestock owners to go further and use forest land for pasturing their animals.  The effluent living demanded more wood for houses, roads and even rail tracts.  Half of the forests of the H.P. and even Uttaranchal were used to built railway tracts, road bridges, tourist huts, hotels houses and like.  One wonders even the dense forests were cut to provide electric polls in the forest-neighborhoods.  Even these cut forest polls were carried to far off places.  Rice’s came to forest lice’s, beurocraates, police officers and politicians from cutting naturally grown forests.  Even those who wish to fight poverty exploited forests.

 

  1. Pleased with the judgment of the horrible Judge, the farmer prayed for him & wished god to make him forest guard.

This way forest has been wasted due to constant negligence of all the people living around, the forest licenses, the forest planners & protectors and even the furniture, wood users.  Even if the extraction of wood could be phased form old forests & new forest canopy allowed to grow undeterred, the bushes & shrubs have almost devastated from forests.  They used to provide much needed moisture conservation.

 

Livestock Grazing

 

Forest-water-snow –animal combination is as old as the earth itself.  One wonders why we cry foul.  The devastation by wood cutters, forest licensees is higher in magnitude than poor animals grazing in areas of bushed & shrubs.  Over grown bushes and shrubs bind the soil and provide moisture conservation, but extract soil nutrients too.  As such moderation between existence and overgrowth has to be executed.  This can be done by grazing.  We have many wild species existing in forest like herbivores, carnivores etc.  Only verb ivories deer, oxen, bisan, sheep and goats use forest canopy.  The elephants use the tree wigs, but harbor themselves in dense forests alone.  We have two-three kinds of forests, the temperate forest remain under thick snow cover and have no chance of grazing or pastoral effects for about 9 months in a year.  Even if migratory grazing is allowed in rest of 2-3 months, its effects will be minimal and not substantial.  In turn the potential benefits of seed dispersal (essential for new growth of forests) and fertilization will be of greater magnitude.  Every animal has a feeding habit and a group of species have a set of grazing.  This is natural & cannot change.  Horse has two sets of teeth & uproots the grasses, but do not cud or ruminate as they do not have one, as such they are circumscribed by their physiology to restrict to chewing of greens or hays.  This way we find very few Equine species damaging forests directly.  Goat being ruminants, have a bitter taste.  They thrive or live on nibbling or browsing.  The browse consists of sour, thorny shrubs.  They prefer dry leave.  They resist even moist leaves.  Their favorite diet is thorny bushes and dried harvested leaves.  Both of these are forest wastes.  Yes they do nibble, but only young plants may scumb to it.  Goats move more too dense & hilly difficult bushes & forest hide out.  Such hideouts are overgrown bushes, rainforest or even temperate forest canopy.  As such they are not the sole destruction element in the forest.  Now even goats are used in Canada, USA & EG for clearance of bushes & shrubs which are known to be the weeds of forests.

Therefore blaming goats alone will not do.  How hippo crates are we?  We advocate grazing of wild herbivores, the deer, which are the next of the cousin’s jealousy, is so enormous that man being himself a destructor blames it to Goats, who are made scab-goats for none or less of their faults.  Sheep are no browsers but graze on areas nibbled by goats.  Goats are leaders & sheep follow them.  The close grazers oxin, bison, cattle, buffalo  doe not dear to enter thick canopy so try to graze the denuded arears or arears grazed by goat & sheep.  The animals add to forest their manures & even disperse seeds.  Thus, in a way they have s symbolic existence in t he forest.  To some extent overgrazing in fringe forests is a problem by these large animals, but then they adopt to stall feeding.  If forest waste is meddled as cattle, buffaloed feed/fodder blocks we will restrict them.

Fortunately for us, these animal species are reducing in number production is increasing.

All animal husbandry programmers should aim at increasing per animal production.  This will limit the number of animal.  For example if 10 local cow yield 20 liters of milk, raise one cross bred which yields 30 liters per day, so no need of grazing provide the cut grasses from forests as fodder, the matter is resolved.  Goats produce milk at the rate 100-200 gm per goat/ day.  Alpine, Saanan, Boar etc. they are stall fed too & yield 2-3 kg of milk of milk, so number can be reduced by 1005 without compromising the productivity.  Sheep & goats have same story to tell on far meat is concerned.  Sheep can thrive a stubb lands & limited protected grazing will ward off the troubles.  However, all this needs a planning.  A plan by those who know the forests, animals and the socio economic condition.  Let us evolve a model of free discussions and open planning.  How many plans have heard based on review.  Often the committee supposes to plan have but little experience of working with people, animals or forests.  We constitute committees on the bass of posts they hold not knowledge they process.  We must restrict our planners to the knowledge based members.

 

Water harvesting Chinese model

 

We have maximal rainfall in forest area than under cultivated lands for canopy reason well known.  All this rainwater harvesting is so unman gable that it flows soil dressing & lead to soil erosions & floods.  A forest has to be managed as we manage our cultivated fields.  A judicious and innovative sure water runoff strategy has to be worked out.  I have seen a beater model applied by Chinese in Kunming rainforests than the much talked water shed management borrowed from World Bank.  I do not criticize it but yes it has not yielded 1005 results as most of thaw world bank/FAO projects on agriculture like NAEP/ T&V/ NATP and like NARM did not too.  The top-down approaches webbed with beurocratic delays in sanctions & provision availability hinder their positive effects to minimal.  The technical Chinese model is site-specific & not project specific.

Every site is studied and model evolved to catch up every drop of water.  The overflows are drained to a big reservoir which has accumulated as S Lake.  we have canals, lakes & water channels overloaded in rainy season.  We have to harvest then by digging reservoirs within these canals.  Let us talk it.  I have described the plan for Kashmir valley districts & called it Mohy potential water reservoirs.  Let us think as Indian, practice our plans as common people & advice others who work or fund us.  But, alas who talks to knowledgeable or one who works on land.  We plan and discuss in big meeting where dining is more suitability arranged than technical discussion.

We sell ideas of so called experts, who have never lived in a rural village or situation.  All of us the educations, beurocrated tigers, scribing what came to our thoughts.  A factual situational analysis is needed to plan, be it water conservation, forest management or else.

 

Conclusion

 

To conclude let us plan the management of fringe forest vis-in-vis limited grazing or no grazing as follows:

 

  1. We can create fodder block factory under forest dept using forest waste canopy to feed animals.
  2. Organized dairy, sheep, goat farming needs subsidies & proper incentives.
  3. Waste of animals & forest needs to be used for organic farming, to increase livelihood options of the farmers driving their daily income form cut wood of forest.
  4. Use of modern cooking devise, with minimal use of wood or improved models of using renewed energy of sun, gobar gas or dried car coal or even hardened waste bricks will limit use of forests wood.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About the Author

gazanfer,paras.maryam,sarah

Mcdonell Douglas MD 11 landing at Snow

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