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The social chaos and order

Introduction

Chaos is a new way of understanding the social order. Instead of a perverse paradox, this statement is based on the various developments of chaos theory in the natural sciences and mathematics (Barnsley 1988; Crutchfield et al 1986; Dewdney 1985, Gleick 1987, Mandelbrot 1983; Mullin 1993). In the past two decades, chaos theory is applied in many fields of theoretical and applied science (Baier and Klein 1991, Cohen and Stewart 1994; Davies and Gribbin 1992, Gleick 1987, Hao 1990; Holden 1986 Luna, 1987; Mullin 1993; Rasband 1990; Ruelle, 1989), including some areas of social sciences (Brown 1994; Chen, Dendrinos Sonis and 1990, Gell-Mann 1947-1948, Goodwin 1990; Hao 573-632; Holton and May, Kiel and Elliott, 1996; Lewin 44-62; Nicolis 1991). Applications latter, however, have used chaos theory as a mathematical tool incorporated into conventional frameworks rather than as an alternative conceptual framework that could illuminate the very social order that has emerged from chaos theory. Serve conceptually chaos theory must be understood conceptually.

In this article, do not produce mathematical models or computer simulations or offer me plenty of new data. Also definitely not use the chaos as a metaphor. This is not a literary exercise designed to decorate the social sciences with a new image, as the machine, the body, the deductive system, or the adversarial debate (Morgan 1986).

It might seem appropriate to chaos group such heuristic metaphors. These metaphors have been used in the social sciences to address and study phenomena was thought to be otherwise insoluble rigorous scientific examination. However, the success of multiple research efforts in life mathematics, physics, and social sciences in identifying various types of chaotic dynamics suggests that the chaos should not be grouped with metaphors, but with the known types of order as Linear deterministic, stochastic, and random.

This group emphasizes that chaos does not use a theory as a model (Harvey and Reed 309). My use of chaos Therefore, it is theoretical rather than semantics (Richards 98). This group does not deny that the majority of existing research has considered the chaos as a result of changes within the parameters of deterministic systems. Chaos is generally seen as deterministic chaos. It also states the discovery of chaotic dynamics in data social sciences (Kiel and Elliot) when the social situations that generate the data can not be reduced to linear deterministic principles or equations. From this statement seems flowing the possibility that chaos is a type of order does not depend strictly on deterministic systems for their existence. As a kind of order, chaos can be the first clear link, non-reductionist between certain specific conditions in numerical and physical schemes, such as phase transitions, and a widespread and spontaneous quality of social reality. More than a fad or a metaphor out of place, chaos may be a small window in a new and broader way of understanding human life includes determinism, stochasticity and randomness.

Grouping chaos with the known types of frames for chaos as an understandable form, of a more rather than as a metaphor for a certain condition incomprehensible. Besides being a more useful approach, this group also raises a deeper issue foundation of philosophy or social science. This question defines the horizon of my question here: What properties must the universe (social) have to expose the four types of order?

Given the chaos as a type of order allows me to use the results of experiments to pave the way for chaos as conceptual social order. Are characteristic of chaos to bring in the social order. feature mixing / folding phenomenon characteristic of physical phenomena chaos (Crutchfield et al 51-4; Gleick 122, 255, 257 and Mullin 19-21). My approach to social power as actions on the action provides a necessary bridge to understanding social chaos and order.

After this presentation of chaos theory as a conceptual framework, which then lay out an application of the theory chaos, with various social phenomena – the oppression, modernization, change of language, moral change, political change, and cyberspace. In the course of this application show that chaos theory can be used to clarify conceptually the social order, but the nature of social phenomena to place significant limitations mathematical application of chaos theory to social science data.

Social Power

We begin with a reflection on the fact that other – mother, father, siblings, pets, blankets, rain, sun – have been acting on us for a long time. Others, both animate and inanimate, were not only act on ourselves as acts of rain on the tin, water or sand, but more specifically in our body attempts to act. These actions include the full range qualities – and punch caress, embrace, and push, praise and blame, approve and reject, and so on. These actions on our actions have caused and introduced social power: stock shares.

Stock shares of repetitive sounds. Redundant No, but repetitive in the sense that something similar is repeated in each act. Similarity characterized by the difference in individual life stories, family stories, and stories of the community. In fact, as historical beings, all human life is involved in every human action in action – with pictures, compressed, focused, refracted, split – as much as all of a language is "in" any case of its use.

What precisely then is the process of stock actions? We can interpret the phrase as scalar recursion is the recurrence of similar structure at different scales. Something similar in all cases of stock shares, whether in relations between Supreme Commander and a full military establishment, a lieutenant and a platoon or a private one and another.

Paying more attention to the phrase "actions for actions" admits that the relationship of social power chaos theory. The first and third terms – "action" – are identical, but this identity is qualified by the second term – "by". The preposition "to" is used instead of those that indicate the symmetry or equality, such as "with", "along with" the side, "etc. The word meaning" action "is amplified by the dynamic sense of the preposition. They may be summarized on an interim basis: social power structure and the actions on the actions is the dynamic asymmetry.

Then observe the absence of any substantive modifier "Action." Words such as "all", "most", "many," some ", etc could have been used. But no one can actually count the number of actions on your body. noncountability This extends in all human time scales. This is true if the time scale generations of the shares of national models of life mediated by cohort, years of family patterns mediated by the family, years of being a consumer, student, parent, child, or employee, or months of dating, going steady, being engaged, or being married. It is not possible, therefore, are consistent with this idea of social power in a quantitative countability dualism as finite / infinite. This failure in turn enhances the provisional sum in the previous paragraph: "a" is ambiguous, ambivalent or asymmetric. It is not necessarily symmetrical or asymmetrical.

From Detector For Attractor

This understanding of social power can be used as a power detector. It can be used in any human situation to bring to light, expose or highlight, to expose or reveal, the power relations. This energy detector is like a metal detector to find something different, physically or is like a thermometer that quantitatively reduce complex physical condition. This is a detector of human situations in which people's actions can be considered to be acting on the actions of individuals. It can be used analytically to consider relations cooperation or collaboration, which is in fact stock shares, and to consider the situations of oppression. It predicts that the social power will be dynamic, ambiguous and fluid symmetrical / asymmetrical, and countless numbers.

Uncountability The condition can be understood as meaning that the actions can be decomposed and recomposed indefinitely in the patterns more or less inclusive. The oppression of being forcibly confined in a mental institution, for example, can be analyzed in terms many – architectural, political, economic, familial, social, psychiatric, etc. All the terms are relevant to integrity analysis for although none of the terms exhaust the entire range of actions on actions in this situation.

Now we can consider a social process smooth or surface water in laminar flow without turbulence or chaos. The onset of turbulence and chaos is both a qualitative and quantitative change of the status laminar and is not simply a collection of preconditions. Changing a pattern characterized by repetition and similarity between different scales of the pattern. The social power detector detects a repetition of the action on the action between human beings. The repetition and similarity indicate a certain attraction of actors to each other. The detector indicates an attractor.

In the chaos theory, an attractor is a pattern in space. The rate is the state space or phase space. Space phase is a multidimensional space which includes the Cartesian coordinates and the momentum of a system, ie the attractor. There are many definitions of attractors in the literature (Cohen and Stewart 204-7, 166-75 Coveney and Highfield, Gleick 150, 232-6; Hao 16-18, 51-63, Kiel and Elliott 26, 54-5, 172; Mainzer 4-7, 58-9; Mullin x-xii, etc.) Definition of the Moon is simple and useful: An attractor is a "set of points or a subspace in phase space toward which the story is about a time after transients die out. For example, equilibrium points or fixed points on the maps, limit cycles, or a toroidal surface for quasiperiodic motions are dynamic attractors classic (261). attractor pattern is a steady state or set of states which converge a dynamic system. An attractor is not necessarily one or more states only.

The verb phrase "that converges …" conveys this quality non-dualistic and also points to the quality a strange attractor that makes it: a final equilibrium is never reached – the symmetry is never reached, nor is "stable" came to the asymmetry. The model shows self-similarity across scales, but never comes to an identity, or, as the equilibrium condition. Using the Moon again, a strange attractor is " attracting set in phase space where chaotic orbits move. An attractor is not an equilibrium point or a limit cycle or a quasiperiodic attractor. An attractor in phase space with fractal dimension "(267).

A very defining feature of a strange attractor, moreover, is the dependence sensitive to initial conditions. The pattern of a strange attractor can be taken as points of the pathways that start at arbitrarily small distances of others. Over time, distances change so much and so quickly that at a later time in the pattern of the initial conditions are no longer observable. The subsequent state pattern or system therefore can not connect with deterministic fitness principle.

It has been demonstrated repeatedly, both in physical experiments and numerical this condition should bend and stretch simultaneously. For example, place a drop of dark blue dye on the surface of a large piece of white bread dough. Then knead the dough. Kneading folds and stretches the dough. flexion and extension of the blue dye is mixed through the dough until it is distributed throughout the mass. The entire mass of the paste is pale blue. It is physically or mathematically impossible to determine the final status of a mixed dye, where the mass was in place outset. The sensitivity of the system to its original condition therefore means that regardless of how close to each other the elements are initially, that folding extends the results in the initial conditions that are no longer observed or the corresponding deterministic. Such a mixture involves simultaneous expansion and contraction. As this happens, old or above, the information is destroyed and new information is created or later.

The chaos and oppression

When introduced into an examination of oppression, this approach illuminates some crucial aspects. First, does the oppression of the human body in two ways – either by elimination from the body of the house and two covering the body with non-indigenous, uniform clothing. Examples of both operations can be found with the prisoners of war criminals committed mental patients, military personnel, and students in compulsory education.

Secondly, oppression works and human structures on earth. imperialism, whether religious, political, military or ecological repeatedly involved the destruction of buildings and parts of the earth such as trees, crops, livestock, fields and species. Examples are the destruction of forest trees in the Old Testament, the burning of manuscripts in China in 212 BC C. and fire Library of Alexandria in 525 AD. More currently, the destruction of human life spaces and places, from the rainforests, the places of life, the old items of cities, involves the destruction of old information and the creation of new information.

The combination of these two operations of oppression, we see human bodies of the survivors, born and raised together, moved, mixed, and clothing so that, when viewed later, no trace of its initial conditions – their indigenous or native states – remain. The above information about the previous identity of displaced persons or destroyed sites is replaced by the new information resulting from actions against persons and places. Add to this repression, disuse and the disappearance unprivileged language and customs, then the image of a uniform mixture or a mixture of uniformity, it becomes more clear.

Third, sensitive dependence initial conditions of both physical and numerical experiments involving the amplification of small initial differences in large differences later. twins brothers and neighbors and cohorts often people develop lifestyles that not only put out of focus its initial conditions, but also differ in ways that are not susceptible of calculation and linear. In the case of ethnically homogeneous groups of refugees crossing the border with another country, individual lifestyles may differ lights beyond linear time.

From the point of view of social power, the actions of these people worked for the actions of corporate transactions that "mixture", "times" and "stretch" the whole world. In one and the same time, contemporary, industrial, urban functions of society all stereotypes, while the provision of physical and mental for individual differentiation. From the standpoint of chaos theory, this allows for indefinitely small and large distances between points or themes, the model of the strange attractor. It also allows for signs and signals, for example as hair styles, clothing, gestures and jewelry, websites, and C (i) BER (dentities), increasingly devoid of any known society anchors, traditional – traditional initial human conditions. Instead, these signs and signals whenever they occur in production, consumption and communication patterns that transcend national differences and ethnic or linguistic origins.

Such uniformity of the model and carries the signal, fourth, another feature reflective of strange attractors also tried on several occasions by physical experiments. It is a continuous power spectrum. When half mutable, fluid for example, is driven beyond a certain threshold, their signals measurable continuous change abruptly discontinuous to continuous. At the level of extreme arousal, signs are continuous. Rather than showing discrete peaks and valleys through the signal, most of the signal is continuous, undifferentiated "Noise" (Brown 135; McBurnett (2) 43-5). Urban areas where human activities raise go to twenty-four hours a day, are all examples of such social "white noise". This noise has eclipse power of bird songs, the sounds of wind, and much of the human voice. In urban areas, around the world and the sounds and noises of all that are folded over each other and is mixed in collective sound. This mixture produces a variety of sound experiences which can not be predicted from knowing the origin and quality of any particular sound – emergency synergy – and disappear into the white noise in which no sound dominates the sound, while anyone can be a time more or less distinct. In fact, the lack of definition Urban noise does not obscure origins, but also the dynamics (Brown 123; Dendrinos 241; McBurnett (1) 171-5, 185, 190). Is the urban dynamic of "noise White random, stochastic, chaotic or other type of order that a conceptual framework using chaos theory can illuminate better than other types of concepts of order? Return to this question in my conclusion.

A continuous spectrum of energy is connected to the sensitive dependence on initial conditions for designation at the onset of chaos, destruction of old information and the creation of new information. The chaotic signals prior to literally disappear and are replaced by noise unevenly scattered broadband. This feature is connected with the oppression that the latter involves the injection of new energy in a existing system. Destroy housing sites, destroying some and other moving bodies, burying the dead to the living and clothing, then re-socialize survivors injected new energy into the bodies and in their relationships with others.

The oppression not only tracks organs to new forms of energy, but also make new energy available to those bodies. It should be noted here that the use of chaos theory does not lead to any simple view, reductionist social power, social order. Social power may restrict or release may or may do both in the same situation and the same person. decreases in the hegemony White, American, heterosexual, Christian men, books, and chain saws, along with the empowerment of women, children, homosexuals, non-whites, non-Christians, not European-Americans, hard drives, and endangered species are oscillations of social power in the social order.

Some Examples of this mixture and folding are Gandhi learning English and English law, which he used to drive the British from India, Crazy Horse learning to use a rifle with invaders who killed soldiers, prisoners with weapons seized guards the guards of prison riots, and students using computers to attack military-industrial complex, university or law school dress codes. This feature variable power spectrum induced by the continuous power – as if the law of conservation of energy are working to preserve social social power, regardless of who is or what your hands do not change the social order Existing – shows that some types of social power persist through the interruption.

Two examples of persistent social power are the physical structure of a modern prison and the legal structure and temporal distribution of modern mass education. In the first case, the body of an inmate is disciplined four hours a day for the environment bars, walls, gates and barriers, with or without other individual human presence. In the past, people from six to sixteen years of age are consistently disciplined by a linear system that involves every day of the calendar year with its own significant milestones as the beginning and end of classes, the terms quarters and semesters.

A closer look at a fluid excited strengthen the connections just mentioned. When heat is applied to water in an open container, the water moves little by little until there is an abrupt transition to a boil. Boiling can be understood as the creation of infinite surface in finite volume. Water occupies a space finite. The elements of water, the water molecules being separated forever but move faster and faster. Since the molecules can not be converted on each other and as you can not stop moving, they must have an infinite surface. They get infinite surface water balancing is a process of stretching and folding of the medium liquid.

The water mixture is folded and extends indefinitely and unpredictably. boiling can be further understood as the energy release heat the air. Hot water is more visible on the surface to the air, more heat is released. If the heat stops will stop boiling water and return to their pre-chaotic, the rest regime. If the heat keeps the water slowly evaporate until the container is empty.

There are two phases of this information event in which old above information is destroyed and new, later is created. The first is the transition from inactivity to a boil. The second is the transition from steam to boil. All information about the rest positions of the molecules disappears into boiling water. All information on the positions of the molecules boiling water is lost in the mist. It is impossible to verify through observation of atmospheric water molecules when and where these molecules were part of a liquid body water, either boiled or at rest.

Many individuals and groups of individuals can be seen as culturally vaporized. It is impossible to observe people on the streets City to determine when and where people or their ancestors were members of groups that could have been considered ethnically homogeneous tribes, clans, or cultures. As the borders of changing the world of nations, such as data transfer technologies dissolve the barriers of time, space and place, such as war and environmental degradation persist, such as droughts, floods, volcanoes and displace people, human beings are increasingly culturally vaporized.

The condition of cultural vaporization, on the other hand, includes three simultaneous expansion – increasing human population, increasing urban population and improving the standardization control the spread of centralized, bureaucratic over growing number of people in more and more detail of human life. Coincident with these expansions is the contraction of the total housing space per capita and the contraction in a further contraction of non-standard living space.

Without standardization, space unoppressed life can be a space of resistance, armed or unarmed, written or unwritten. In the U.S., for example, where the rhetoric of individuality is continuously encased in the gestures of compliance, the only people living space unoppressed many of his body. Therefore, resistance to oppression as uniformity forced, as the restriction of standardization without the release of individualization – standardization and elimination of the difference – appears as tattoos, piercings, jewelry, hairstyles, makeup, cars, clothes, music, dialects, food, and gestures. But the information conveyed by such diversity has no clear relationship or deterministic initial conditions of resistance, ie, their ancestors, their indigenous groups, or their homes. Resistance to distinguish the appearance of a body is a response to anonymity and depersonalization. Folds to the person further into the strange attractor of change.

At the same time, however, that the power Modern is "uniform" and the standardization of all of us, the modern industrial economy is the diversification and differentiation of us. If twenty different modem types, different sports shoes thirty marks, fifty different types of car, or several hundred of different shades of lipstick are not enough, more can be invented and produced. The operations of current social conditions on human beings to move so the social order in two opposite directions at once: towards greater uniformity and toward greater diversity.

The expansion of individualized treatment options occurs with the contraction of living space per capita and per capita living space unoppressed. Oppression operations so it can be said to have two asymptotic limits. in one direction, oppression tends to make everyone equally, and in the other direction, tends to make all different. For example, short hair, leather shoes low heels, pants, shirt and jacket could describe a man or woman of almost any society on earth. But in the U.S., where the unisex look is common to all older people have a unique number social security number of a single license, and many people also have a number of unique addresses.

Transients and Trajectories

We can continue this approach to social chaos to order work in chaos theory applied to mathematical and physical phenomena is echo simultaneous interpenetration of contexts in social life. We contexts for attractors and customary practices in the contexts that the basins of attraction. A basin of attraction is a set of initial conditions in phase space leading to a particular attractor and context. These initial conditions are often linked, such the practices of a group, and form a continuous subspace in some larger cultural phase space.

Reported by Peter Yam, in the March 1994 issue of Scientific American, numerical experiments conducted by Edward Ott and John C. Sommerer, as their movement in a "friction surface is occasionally a particle pushed "led to uncertainty as to which of the two attractors" particle pursued, because a river is filled with parts of the basin of another. "According to Yam, the researchers found that, so far from the river just overlap each other at their edges or occasionally penetrate their respective areas, "each area in a watershed, however small, contains other parts of the basin in it."

This research supports the theory of chaos as a good representation not only of certain practices but interpenetrating contexts mixing and folding. All practices are collections of other human practices. Any practice can be a decomposed into smaller practices with different stories or reconstituted in large practices with different stories. For example, learning to use a computer keyboard coordination involves fine to use different fingers separately, and the raw skills to use equipment powered by electricity, such as connecting an outlet and turn on a switch. What we mean by tradition, custom and habit is just one layering–mixing/folding–process by which the information is compressed and repeated through use and application forms and eroded in ways that you can use – reproducible – over long periods time and in different spaces. The different areas of the guard and prisoner, the patient and the physician or the consumer and producer are therefore different contexts – attractors – Continually operating upon and within each other.

Paradoxically, the divisibility of human practices nondecomposability reflects the systems approach Chaotic: Chaotic systems are indecomposable because they can be divided into two subsystems do not interact; This is due to topological transitivity "(Richards 96). This point can be understood mathematically as the requirement that "the equations [n] online differential, and describing phenomena or problems should be viewed as a whole, ie as nondecomposable "(Kiel and Elliott 4 and also Jaditz 69). For example, cycling can be seen as a combination of skills using large muscle legs and arms, or small muscle skills with hands, feet and eyes, or social sensitivities related to posture, the appearance and style. Each of these three combinations can be viewed separately as appropriate verbal and quantitative terms. However, none of them can be lived, experienced, or separately. They all come with each other, all interact, impact, and are affected by them. However finely subsystem involved in bicycle – Or using a computer, singing, swimming, painting, riveting – is described as a coherent separate skill or ability, it is always (already) that interact with all other systems. Indeed, the growing popularity over the last decades of terms such as "interpersonal", "interaction" "Interconnection" and "interpenetration" suggests that chaos theory, at least one contemporary mind and imagination is a form totally believable approach to understanding social phenomena.

Viewing oral and written traditions as different contexts – as interpenetrating sites as interactive systems – suggests that the object of social science, either diachronically or synchronically elongated stacks can be seen as dissipative systems. Maintenance continuous repair and the necessary reconstruction of body cells to clothing to transit systems to software configurations seems to leave little doubt that human living arrangements rather than predominantly conservative dissipative systems. In considering challenges to the management of complex systems, says Greene

A socio-technical or technical-economic macro is a dissipative structure in the sense that high quality inputs (energy and matter) are converted into products low quality and waste heat, with an increase in disorder and entropy. Within this overall process, of course, low-quality raw materials become finished products high quality, but these break down over time, with increasing entropy. (287)

If this is reasonable, then, attempt to approach clarifies the social order conceptually with chaos theory. As Bai-Lin Hao Chaos II explains, "is the dissipation that realizes the [contraction] compression of the description] [information in a natural way: a number of ways to die due to dissipation, and only covering the attractors will be taken into account in the modeling [sic] the system "(6). Dissipation – depreciation, degeneration, deterioration, mortality, extinction – can be seen as the means by which normally the natural functioning social and natural systems function to stabilize the long term against short-term volatility caused by the proliferation of differences. Dissipation, in this regard, according to Hao, "makes the volume they represent the initial states in phase space to engage in the process of evolution" (19).

Oscillations in the practices of all kinds are well known and widely documented (Shils). Oscillations are identified as such in a field of possibilities whose boundaries are defined by the tolerance of difference professionals. A wide tolerable of the difference in what I describe in detail elsewhere (Cornberg (1)), not as a statistical table or generalization, quantification unless expressly requested actions, but as a series of preferences enacted and staged in contexts. The tolerable range of phase difference or define a state space in social life, enactment and recreation of the preferences are paths of practice. When a path does not include the attractor, is extinguished.

Research by Ott and Sommerer also encourages us to seek what they have found other ways – nested embedded and contexts encaptic or attractors. The critical attractor of all human group is reproduction. Examples of human groups are families, tribes, nations and corporations. All living organisms must reproduce for the species to survive, but humans have the additional task of reproducing not only the practices of the progeny. Reproduction, such as human offspring, the transmission of language, and continuity of traditions, all displays compression information. Information that needed to complete the practice is repeated and varies across the ends of the practice as well as representations and learning events for others. Recognizable at any time for a change in practice can be done and can be built in place of the previous version. What happened before is accessible to present only through the memory devices of the group. There is no guarantee of any such memory device, oral, written or electronic, other versions have not existed. The groups living resist infinitization preferences thrusts of the tradition.

One big difference is tolerable of variations that in all these situations. intolerable meet several other behaviors that are also practical and indifference, the correction, ridicule, criticism, rejection, denial, censorship, repression, censorship, punishment, banishment, conflict and war. If a practice, regardless of how momentary, and regardless of where they fall within the tolerable range of difference, not drag reproductive energy a group becomes a transient and dies. A transition is a path that does not include the attractor or long enough to be duplicated or reproduced. As a farmer, Ott, and Yorke stating in an article on the dimension of chaotic attractors, "Generally speaking, an attractor is something that appeals to the" initial conditions of a region around it once transients have disappeared "(154). The young people in industrialized countries tend to have a variety of private businesses and public services. Parameters such as location, economy, tax base, climate, ethnicity and how the basins of attraction that the layer – interpenetrate or intersect – each other as determinants of such activities continue to appear and then disappear or appear in such contexts.

A case study or sample in-depth interview as a location would a phase portrait of the attractor. Contained in any specific evidence of such a portrait would be information on other aspects of the social situation. We know, for example, interviews personal preferences about political candidates or issues of bonds also can give us information about the use of language, gestures, and aspects of social life such as class relations and discrimination. According to Hao, the "basic idea is: due to the nonlinear interactions in the system of these samples [information taken at different times] contain information on other variables as well and one must be able to extract this information "in this series of samples (53). These co-presence, simultaneity, or interpenetration of data serves to illustrate that combines social power compression and persistence in the social order.

Homelessness is a powerful example contemporary regimes indicator of human life, with increasing regularity, to distinguish between bystanders and non-transitory. The fact that small communities have less incidence of homelessness lasting compared to large cities, cities and metropolitan areas suggests that the trajectories of people homeless are attracted to human living basins where multiple watersheds – for example, Ott and Sommerer – has enough of the pieces together to allow – of tolerated in the range of differences – life organization strongly divergent.

But the pieces that contain from one another then instead involves substantial discontinuities in the process of cosmetic and social structure. Strongly divergent practices in turn smaller form in the attractor attractors more big cities. Homeness patterns and homeless then be expected to show a variety of paths of practice, such as correlations between the incidence of homelessness and the existence of dining rooms, the availability of free housing, locking the doors of the house, the enclosure of land, zoning discriminatory, ownership of small arms, or ownership of the guard dogs. In these centers, the disappearance of a transient may be the death of a person as the disappearance of a practice may be the death of a doctor. But as a passer is a path that does not include the attractor enough or sufficiently away to repeat, then the time or the time is enough? What causes a practice to survive and another desist?

Forecasting and Social Change

An indication of this in terms of causality hastens the appearance of the question of the prediction that arises naturally in any attempt to apply to issues social theory and developed based on numerical and physical experiments. It is a fact of growing importance for all branches of science that most find systems that are nonlinear. The social order nonlinearity can be understood as the interpenetration contexts discussed in connection with the investigation Ott and Sommerer. This characteristic of interpenetration bears directly and deeply into the possibility of using chaos theory to describe the data mathematically social science.

the social science data are derived from social phenomena and social phenomena are contextual. If contexts interpenetrate, then science of social phenomena have always already begun, in many senses nontrivial before observed, recorded, and quantified in a sample of the social sciences in particular. The start and end times of the observations are given to the social scientific data available. Assumptions can be done about a particular person or situation which is reached when observed, but these assumptions can not provide accurate information unique conditions, quantitative. Since this situation obtains throughout the analysis of social science data, it is impossible to determine the initial conditions of these phenomena with the uniqueness and precision necessary to use established measures of chaos mathematics, such as spectral analysis, Lyapunov exponents, functions autocorrelation, distribution of power of the law, and others (Kiel and Elliot 8-10, 51, 53). If these calculations are not possible, then it is impossible to say with mathematical certainty and clarity to the chaos that exists in any particular social group of scientific data.

In addition to this limitation chaos calculator measures the Chaos theory has another feature that greatly limits their applicability to the quantitative data of the social sciences: the homogeneity.

Including disturbed liquids, amplified electrical loads, atmospheric gases, and chemicals in all liquid mixtures show a homogeneity that is precisely susceptible mathematical description, but is found nowhere in social life. mathematical manipulations, such as the construction of the Mandelbrot set and the generation Feigenbaum number, are also homogeneous as variations symbol system of mathematics. However, "rarely or never, are systems social comprising identical components with a very homogeneous "(Dendrinos 240-1). The only way you can achieve consistency in the data social science is to quantify some aspect of social life such as divorce rates, the choices of voters, and the incidence of the disease. Once certain quantities are obtained can then build simulations that show characteristics of chaos.

However, the simulations all arbitrary postulate, conditions initial artificial not correspond or represent the ongoingness, historicity, or the experience of the phenomena that quantitative data are extracted. For example, in a presentation its universal map for the study of the dynamics of human settlements, Dendrinos said that "a change in parameter values or initial conditions can lead a new framework, m, potentially characterized by a qualitatively different dynamic … (253). No doubt there is no end to the possibilities summary in this model. In fact, according Dendrinos, "one of the weaknesses" in current uses of chaos theory to mathematical modeling in economics is "that under slight modifications, but in the correct specification, these models can play almost anything the analyst wishes to occur through the deduction theoretical "(238)!

But what constitutes the initial conditions of human settlements and human activity even in the first place? Is it a initial condition that a shaman read the entrails of a bird and led a team to settle in a certain cave, or was the fact that the group had only two days left of food and winter approached, or was the appearance of a star known in a strange area of the sky at night? Or was the competition between a boss and a deputy who was the best provider for the group? Suppose that the latter was taken as initial condition posed to the established group in a cave in particular. In what sense, then, was that the initial condition? Is it called an "initial condition" implies that he had no history? Is it not possible that the chief allowed the sub-head to select that particular cave at that particular time because the boss had already decided to retire from active leadership, or because the sub-chief had promised certain material rewards? In any case, there is another condition before, before, before, or bent at first. Indeed, how is possible to give any precise meaning to the term "initial" in such a situation?

There is a general silence in the literature on the issue fundamental of how adequately and effectively translate the concept of initial conditions of physical and numerical experiments for social science observation, sampling and description. The appearance of chaos in mathematical simulations with quantitative data of the social sciences should therefore be viewed with extreme caution. Certainly, chaotic dynamic characteristics can be generated from different types of data quantified the social sciences. But the chaos is an artifact of the simulation or is it an explanation of the lived reality of social life that quantitative data are extracted?

This kind of consideration has led to Harvey and Reed enforce the following rule is the main warning about the application of chaos theory to social science

1. Predictive, statistical, and iconological ways of modeling chaos must be limited to the ontological levels that collective social phenomena can be legitimately treated as a phenomenon statistical aggregate, ie, consists of additive, innumerable individual units, and interchangeable. (314)

Indeed, since the improvements in forecasting specific social yet to be achieved through the chaos theory (Berry and Kim 216, Brown 128; Jaditz 86; Rosser 209), I tend to agree with the comment this time Dendrinos summary that the "chaos mathematician single most important contribution has been [a] social science is to demonstrate the possible presence of new features dynamic social systems theorists had never addressed before "(238). Hence my purpose here to show the usefulness of the theory radical understanding of social chaos for more than to describe social science data mathematically.

Extended Applications

The social order that is in the mix and foldable and fits in the end to the cultural vaporization of the definition of the nonlinearity and illustrates the interpenetration of contexts. The social order is viewed in this way chaotic. social chaos and order also provides a way of understanding the infinite degrees of freedom that characterize human actions.

The infinitization of human freedom is not only due to some inherent characteristic of human nature, character or personality. It is a function of the fact that human decisions are always situated in contexts that interpenetrate in degrees infinitely large and complex in time and space. Each piece in another context or basin attraction offers more choice and each different piece brings more pieces of the same. Moreover, it seems clear that the only linear systems in life society are the railway tracks, such as contracts that require the human will and energy in an attempt to establish and maintain order without variation, ie, unmixed and folding. boycotts, strikes, renegotiations of contracts and collusion between prisoners and guards are, however, that even in these high stakes contexts "social there is no guarantee of linearity.

When we left the arrangements to establish and enforce the lines, canals, and the aisles and between the edges, areas in transition and liminal spaces, in addition, initial conditions of the human trajectories can not be determined with certainty. If so, then there has been a reduction deliberate and arbitrary – Collapse, renormalization – degrees of freedom with social experience as options. Even with this reduction, preferably open to infinite beings human society throughout reintroduce the uncertainty which in turn must be reduced to meet the requirements of linearity. This superposition of rhythmic oscillations recursive, the mixing and folding, and deliberate attempts to reducing linearization can be seen in four specific social situations: Language 1. Threatened 2. Moral Basin; Murder 3., Y, 4. Cyberspace.

Languages 1. Endangered. From time to time since the late 70s, have made several types of projects with Athabascan Indians in Interior Alaska. One such project involves the construction of a survey to gather feedback from tribal members on issues of preservation of indigenous languages. There are nine different Athabascan languages still in use in some form in the interior of Alaska. As an area of land, the interior is slightly smaller that the state of Texas, contains the major drainages of the Yukon, Tanana, Koyukuk, Porcupine, and the river tracksuit, and supports more than forty people – Tribes – whose population resulting from previous Athabascan villages with ethnically mixed Inupiat and Yupik Eskimos and Aleuts of India. Most villages are accessible only air, water, snow or icy conditions. The large towns in the population of less than fifty years to nearly a thousand. All of them have some type of electronic communication with other villages and towns and cities of the state road network and other parts of the world.

All of them have some type of public school facility in which the official language is English. English is also the official language of commerce, public affairs, and most recreational activities such as basketball and bingo. In the interior villages, only a small number of older people retain something like fluency in an indigenous language, with a larger number that part speakers some of whom have not learned the language in an interaction with the natural family, but in a kind of classroom.

On the basis of this, Michael Krauss, who led the Alaska Native Language Center at the University Of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, during the past two decades, predicts that all these languages became extinct by 2055. Krauss describes this prediction with the inclusion of only native speakers, ie those who have learned the language as their first language from birth. This rating takes into account the fact well attested by the larger Athabascan speakers that sounds when used in these highly agglutinative rhythmic, guttural languages have already disappeared or are very difficult for speakers to reproduce contemporary. Along with the disappearance of vocal ranges, the disappearance a distinction, once well marked between formal style of oratory and ceremony, and a vernacular style of everyday affairs, it is claimed by the same speakers. The appearance of a people "English" is further evidence of the soil with English in the Athabascan languages are fading into a quiet tone memory.

It is instructive, before trying to link this with the chaos theory, noted that the Interior Athabascans ropes used to spruce roots, and heavy twine Sewing – Babich – from elk skin. They also used to catch fish in traps of willow bent, shooting birds with bows and arrows and kill the load must do with wooden spears with fire-hardened tip. Most of the older, non-metallic technology industries have either completely disappeared or hobby, piece show, museum piece, or story line. The new technology, based on the metal, chemicals and plastics, has made all older tasks much safer in terms of risk to life and physical integrity, easier and more efficient in terms of human effort, more reliable in terms of success per attempt, and more productive in terms of the quantities purchased. The new Athabascan languages, derived from the largest and adapted to a context in which processing information and transfer are much more important than reverence, ceremony, and the maintenance of taboo, also appear to be increasingly easy to learn and simple to use.

The attractor of Athabascan culture has changed. Its phase space now includes office buildings of several floors with advanced electronic equipment Fairbanks, satellite dishes, color TV, and the latest in snowmachines and outboard motors in the villages. The trajectories of an older, slower, more complicated language, and a larger, more slow, less reliable materials technology, with hunting and gathering as its basin of attraction, do not occupy new attractor. As a result, become transient with varying degrees and types of "death."

The languages that cover the whole national life and international political, economic, military and attractors are English, French, German, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Japanese. The history of each language shows a contraction of state space with a consequent drop in diversity. A contraction decreases the diversity, because, as the transients die out, there are fewer possible paths in a particular attractor. The unification of the Chinese language, for example, began more than two thousand years. The creation of a standard English, French and Spanish are also made at the expense of many local variations some of which, like Catalan and Basque, became smaller local energy attractors enough to survive, but many of which have long ceased to exist. Only in the last decade, according to my own sources in the region, Interior Alaska Athabascans have begun to consider unification as a strategy for language preservation.

2. Moral Basin. Features of river basins are shown linguistic moral. The past century of life in Taipei, Taiwan is an impressive example of contact between cultures and mixing. Experience morals of young people in Taipei was the subject of my thesis and two articles ((2) and (3)) which condenses the content of the dissertation for a wider audience wide. I take the position that moral experience of contemporary urban youth in Taiwan – Taipei – may the best be understood in terms of three interacting sites together: the family, street and school. Based on historical considerations including China everlasting classic and current flows intervention European, Japanese and American civilizations, the basin context or moral of each attractor can be characterized as the family / the hierarchy, the street / fluency, and school / competition.

When young people get in Taipei, live, and (re) create each site in the course of a day, they are the bearers of the pieces each watershed layer recursively each other in the ongoing fluctuations in attitude and behavior. They bring the family a hierarchical deference to older siblings and adults the street and school. Leading from the school a fair competition in school and family. From the street carrying a liquid, individualizing sense of freedom and responsibility both family and school. As layers, companies recursive practices that are continuously affected by their peers and by adults, youth living social reality as porous.

The porosity can be understood as a metric in the space of states of society. The degree of porosity – such interpenetration mixing/folding– is a good indicator of degree of chaos in society.

The porosity of space, moreover, makes holographic in the direction indicated by Ott and Sommerer research showing that all parts listed watershed basins. Connecting routes to other attractors in the social order of Taipei is in a small part of that order, example, a classroom, a living room or a bus stop. For example, while bus passengers in Taipei do not usually line up at the door of the bus, students with school uniforms, but outside of school grounds and outside the jurisdiction of those responsible for school discipline, often aligned. However, relations between attractors and attractors parts are rarely linear but are fractal in the sense of having broken or split between the parties rather than being closely related in linear dimensions. holofractic social space is porous. Predictability within a particular basin of attraction as a family or a school, decreases with increasing porosity of the social life which includes the smaller basin.

Taipei has been one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Asia nearly a century. A loss of old patterns of Taiwan indigenous or imported Chinese has occurred concurrently with an increase in the patterns of other ethnic sources, whether technology, language, dress, dance, customs, religion and marriage customs. In language, for example, written Chinese used Taipei has been complicated both by the different types of characters used there and in the continent and due to the accumulation of elements from other languages. Again, as in the interior Alaska, a contraction of phase space, which indicates the disappearance of certain trajectories pass from the practice that are not in the attractor of social change, along with expansion of phase space as a light in new contexts for new paths of practice that represent various blends of the exogenous and indigenous people.

An application of chaos theory to social issues, as exemplified in Taiwan and Interior Alaska, supports the findings of historical linguistics there is no simple way, inevitable-old complex new languages more simple, or vice versa. It is also compatible with the results of science research increasing social settings attitude and behavior is one of the main events in the complex changes in the social order of the last century, known collectively as for modernization. This is not a linear decrease in the options until sometime after the new options may be more abundant and are introduced. On the contrary, there is a decrease in certain types of cultural options that releases energy for a simultaneous increase in other types.

This melting pot of contact exogenous power limiting and releases, release and repress and destroy indigenous and amplifies the power to unravel the interactions contained in the theory will determine what kind of predictability, if any, are possible in such spaces. It seems unquestionable that there is a strong correlation between the availability of unbound culture or power not committed, whether they come from external sources or release from internal sources, and cultural development of chaotic systems. Whether the cultural power takes the form of free weapons, drugs and money, communication, transportation and production technologies, it does not automatically and seamlessly reproduce indigenous practices and patterns. His introduction becomes an intervention that induces interference patterns. The interference patterns sometimes diverge, and diverge in various orders or basins that in a city like Taiwan, may include new millionaires, depression and suicide, new environmental activism, street crime unprecedented system clean, quiet electrorail, and some of the worst air pollution in the world. As unprecedented, novel, new, and unprecedented increase in amplitude and frequency, the complexity becomes chaos.

3. Murder. A brief example of another country from Mexico, shortly after the assassination of PRI presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio, in Tijuana. Interviewed by the New York Times, March 27 issue by Tim Golden, Jesus Cantu, "an independent newspaper whose editor" had been "bombed two weeks "before, share a general feeling that the assassination had shown weakness in the political system of Mexico" that once seemed indestructible. "In terms of chaos, that the porosity change is emerging. The space of states of Mexico has been divided into laminar turbulence, with a dramatic increase on the possible trajectories of social and political practice. It is no accident or surprise, from the point of view of chaos theory, that the uprising occurred in the southern Maya shortly before the murder. As Cantu said: "It feels now as anything can happen" (Golden 3).

4. Cyberspace. The electronic travel is a dependent phenomenon – when the power goes out the travel stops. As a dependent phenomenon it must constantly re-created. The qualities that are outstanding qualities as those who take the mark, and use it – make Aryan Aryan, environmentalists are the environment, investors make the investment. It has no existence independent of the natural software, known as wiring imagination. Why, then, cyberspace exists at all?

This question is easier Responding on the streets of Taipei in the tundra of Alaska. Taiwan has the second highest population density in the world. When the population density combined with multiple avenues flexible, increased expression, new result human spaces. When the population density combined with limited physical space, like an island as Taiwan, a nation as the United States, or a planet like earth, the compression is performed.

Compression involves a multitude of actions in shares of foldings and mixtures. Compression destroys the information and create information. In both processes, certain types of space are created to not only to accommodate the destructive processes and creative, but also to stop the destruction and created the information. Where to go when a document is placed in the bin? Where to go when a document is stored in cache? Where to go when a document is stored or saved? Where to go when a document is sent by email, fax, print, or mail? Each process requires a certain kind of space.

The compression creates space through the recruitment of quantity. compression beings creates more human and more finely faceted human spaces. At the same time, the increase in human beings, to expand its horizons personal space and their wealth physical needs to create more living space. Humans now need more living space. Many people are responding to the moving compression to areas of land increasingly remote, outer space and the deep ocean.

Cyberspace is a new type of living space that combines the distance satellite transmission to the privacy of home computers, and standardization of hardware and software with the identification of preferences in almost all aspects of the environment. It continues to play space, art space, recreational space and ceremonial space. Certainly cyberspace is a medium of communication. The Email is continuous with other media such as talking, singing, dancing, smoke signals, drums, letters, messengers, telephones, microwave, and fax. But e-mail is just a small part of cyberspace. Impersonal, private control, data transmission and self-stimulation cyberplay two other important uses show that cyberspace grows a need for new types of living space unoppressed. In fact, resistance to government regulation cyberusers shows how cyberspace is continuous with the traditional spaces of individual play, recreation and expression.

The changes described above in language, morality, politics, and human space is not linear, laminar, and sequential. They are like a quiver of arrows were fired in all directions at once. The basic attractor of reproduction in a context intercultural illuminates this phenomenon because people must continue to speak, dress, marry, and so on in order to survive regardless of the brand needs ethnic language, dress, or customs. But if in the process of reproduction, increases the power available to an increasing rate and there are more possibilities multiply faster than the old options may transform, then contracts phase space and expands while some paths on the way out and covering the new attractor.

Older practices whose adoption is connected with an indigenous power exogenous feeding period the new attractor. Those who do not, even as a museum or tourist attractions, are extinguished. The recent practice, which connects enactment exogenous energy to power the new attractor indigenous span. Those who resisted and excluded. How long is long enough and to what extent is far enough? In terms of organization of human life is a matter of how people use different kind of power available to them.

In physical terms, the onset of chaos in physics experiments is reached through the addition of certain types of energy systems – chemical, mechanical, electrical, etc – that are capable of different regimes of behavior. These physical systems do not reach a mess for themselves. They come through the receipt and processing of energy and water stand described above to a boil and process for receiving thermal energy. Son physically driven deterministic systems. Schemes have behavioral characteristics, including the transition to turbulence and chaos, are determined by manipulating certain parameters such as temperature, rotation speed, and voltage.

number systems are more difficult to describe in concrete terms, but they are also deterministic. In processes such as the generation of the Mandelbrot set or Feigenbaum constant, a finite entity number is subjected to repeated recursively layers or folds up that typically occurs bifurcatory oscillatory behavior. Again, the numbers do not reach chaos themselves. The "energy" manipulation

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