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The British Aerospace BAe-146

I

Aircraft manufacturers had, for some four decades, the elusive attempt to design DC-3 replacement with different types of engine, including engine piston and Martin 2-0-2/4-0-4 Convair 240/340/440 series and the Vickers Viscount turboprop Fokker F.27 Friendship and Hawker Siddeley HS.748. The last attempt had been made by the British aircraft industry aware Havilland and Hawker Siddeley had conducted market research, and made designs for a small capacity, short-range aircraft powered by jet engines during 1959 and 1960 pure.

Of the two, De Havilland, with their previous Rapide, Dove, and pistonliners Garza, had experienced considerable regional aircraft and had designed the first pure jet in powered quad form DH.106 Comet. In an initial study for the replacement DC-3, called DH.123, had offered a total length of 60.6 meters, wingspan of 81.3 meters two 1150 shp turboprop Gnone connected to a high wing, and 22.100 pounds maximum take-off mass. So configured, would have accommodated between 32 and 40 passengers, or a little more the DC-3 of Rule 21-28.

De Havilland, subsequently taken over by Hawker Siddeley and redesignated the Division de Havilland, "had been interrupted by the workforce in the DH.123 design because it would have competed closely with Hawker Siddeley's own Rolls Royce Dart 748 Avro power that sat 44. Without However, competition turboprop, along with De Havilland belief that pure jet technology would attract considerable passenger appeal, resulted in the proposal in mid-1960 DH.126 design, which included the below-standard configuration of most low-capacity, short-range two planes SE.210 as the Caravelle, BAC-111 and DC-9, with a swept wing, aft-mounted engines, and a tail-t. Powered by two 3860 lbs thrust de Havilland PS92 jet engines, which had offered a length of 60.3 meters for the accommodation of 30 passengers and a wingspan of 62 feet.

several iterations had introduced progressive but moderate size, thrust, and the increased gross weight in 1964, but further development has been hampered by four key obstacles:

  1. Convenient availability of pure motor reaction.
  2. The interruption of engine development because of several promising mid-1960s the British maker merger engines.
  3. The higher costs per seat / mile DC-3-sectors to which the new design had been expected.
  4. The inability to exploit the speed of a pure jet aircraft along relatively short sectors.

Hawker Siddeley, believe that the engine turboprop had been only Technology interim step, had also embarked on a program of pure jet aircraft design their own long before fusion de Havilland, though low wing, aft engine configurations, t-tail looked like very old competitor.

The attempt to minimize development costs by using the cockpit, forward fuselage, systems and cabin of his own Avro 748, which had proposed the HS.131 in 1964, which had offered similar overall lengths 62.8 meters and a wingspan of 67 feet of De Havilland DH.126 comparable, but its projection of 5,000 lb thrust Rolls-Royce engines RB.172 has allowed it to offer a superior 30,000 pounds gross weight and a capacity of 32 passengers.

Ante, like De Havilland, with the inadequacy and lack of engine availability, Hawker Siddeley devised iterations round planned power plants. A radical change of configuration, introduced by HS.136 1967, for example, had resulted in a low-wing aircraft, powered two 9730 pounds of thrust Rolls Royce Trent engines with a conventional tail accommodate 57 passengers in a five day cabin and providing a 54.000 pounds maximum take-off mass. While the agreement has eliminated the aft-mounted tail t-depth propensity for stables and conditions outside the flame, and its proximity to land would have facilitated close of passengers, aircraft maintenance, maintenance and access, the potential for waste foreign object (FOD) ingestion engine had yielded to the proposal HS.144 two years later, that once again returned to the aft engine settings-now standard.

Progressive design and dimensional changes and increases the thrust has led intermittently in a passenger plane had a capacity of twice the DC-3, and the Rolls Royce bankruptcy led to an interruption development of Trent in 1970, the replacement DC-3, now powerless, had become increasingly difficult to achieve.

This low capacity aircraft short-range passenger had, as ever, revolved around a power plant of its existence, and the potential lay with only a small turbofan being developed by Avco Lycoming in the U.S.. Based on the 7000 lbs thrust F102 that has driven the Northrop A-9A, the engine, a derivative has been designated civil reduced LFA-502 is began in 1969 with the Canadair CL-601 Challenger business jet and had first run two years later. In order to provide commercial, was of modular construction.

Since the rate of number of 6,500 pounds of thrust have been insufficient for the design of newer aircraft, the HS.146 of 1971, and because no other suitable power plant had been in the development stage, the late replacement DC-3 was designed to force the fourth round, not two, engines and offered no standard, mounted on the aft engine, t-tail or wing-mounted alternative configuration. On the other hand, would be the top sport two modestly wings to sweep all four would be post-mounted turbofans. With capacity for 88 passengers, or three times the DC-3 passenger plane, with a length of A wingspan of 86.2 meters and 84.10 meters, had a gross weight of 70,000 pounds and miles of 700 miles nautical range.

However, several advantages HS.146 on the previous, standard-agreement Havilland and Hawker Siddeley design studios. Short field performance, equivalent full of turboprops had intended to replace, had been hit by their relationship thrust / weight and wing, which, with 78 percent of the coverage of its trailing edge with Fowler flaps had obviated the need for leading edge devices, and the simplification and weight reduction had been achieved with the elimination of thrust reversers. The t-tail, remains of the first designs had maintained to stop the engine and wing interference turbulence.

The four engine pods, which had been interchangeable each other, which is modular cores built by the fan base, the accessory gearbox, the producer of gas and the compressor, and the sections combustion turbine.

A 11.8-foot diameter fuselage had allowed an internal arrangement, to be aware of six coach, who had been twice the DC-3.

In order to meet the demands of different route, offering a Hawker Siddeley initial 88-passenger HS-146-100 and an extended version, HS.146 102-passenger-200, both the maximum density of six abreast, although the capacity can be reduced variables, distance between seats, and arrangements to date.

Fully designed in consideration of pure reaction to the Viscount turboprop, and F.27 HS.748 the HS.146 had been optimized for multiple frequency daily high, short-range and short sectors unprepared gravel tracks, however, achieve a 15 percent direct-operating-costs of these aircraft. slow speed control method of just over 100 knots, it had been possible for the rear fuselage speed brake petal and 40 degrees of final front cover, allowing the operation of the runways of 5,000 feet.

Hawker Siddeley had estimated a market for 1,500 aircraft of this type in 1982.

HS.146 launch the program, based on a 40 million pounds of British government support and investment of the manufacturer itself, had occurred on August 29, 1973, and first flight of the short fuselage HS.146-100, had been scheduled for December this year with the following certification in February 1977, while laying HS.146-200 coinciding with the fuselage session had been certified in August 1978. A wooden scale model was built in Hatfield intermittently.

Like many UK commercial projects, its timing had been abruptly stopped a little over a year after it began. Escalating fuel prices from the Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War, the changing economic conditions and a general recession, along with the nationalization waiting for the aviation industry in the UK, had HS.146 uneconomic program in October 1974. As a result, has been detained despite engineering continued small-scale and drawings of the aircraft, tools and templates had been retained.

Three years later, on March 15, 1977, British Aerospace was formed by merging Hawker Siddeley and British Aircraft Corporation, and design, redesignated BAe-146, was relaunched. He had been the first that have been carried out by the new conglomerate the following year, on 10 July 1978.

Rolled out for the first time three years later on May 20 1981 in Hatfield, the aircraft, registered G-SSSH, was the first new British design from the BAC-111 had flown 18 years earlier.

The aircraft, its original BAe-146-100 forms, there is a pressure, semi-monocoque aluminum / copper, whose body was inside the fuselage frames bending loads the aircraft and whose outer rings with notches made the pure cargo, a construction technique that eliminated about 5,000 rail and clamp frame. Its diameter of 11.8 feet allowing five or six seats abreast coach, had said that passengers would enjoy the same comfort in feeding routes like typical sectors offering widebody long-range operation to transfer them.

Single-class capacity varied from 71 in one of five bottom configuration 33-inch to 82 in a six-abreast, under 33-inches and a maximum 93 in a six-abreast, 29-inch density. The total capacity decreased with a forward, 12-seat first class cabin in a configuration of four a day.

The aircraft had a 85-foot, 11 ½-inch overall length.

The wings, with a lapse of 86-feet and the area of 832 square-feet, had offered a sweepback 15 degrees and three degrees of anhedral in their leading edges. Due to the short of the aircraft, areas of 150 nautical miles, cruising speeds exceeding Mach 0.7 optimized its had not been necessary and has therefore avoided the need for more sweepback. low speed, short field performance had been achieved through its single-piece, with flanges, the trailing edge flaps Fowler, who, with a surface 210 square feet, had covered 78 percent of the urgency and had been operated by hydraulic actuators ROTOL Dowty. Roll control had been provided by forcibly moved the seat-servo ailerons and equipped with tabs, which operated in connection with the outside of each wing flaps hydraulically actuated roll. Three flaps served as additional internal lift dumpers after touch down.

The power was provided by four Textron Lycoming ALF-502r-5 turbofans, each rated at 6970 pounds of thrust, and they had replaced the lower thrust of 6700 pounds ALF-502Hs originally scheduled for design. Avco Lycoming had already become "Textron Lycoming."

A total of 3098 U.S. gallons of fuel could be carried in two integral wing and a tank center section, the latter located above the passenger cabin and equipped with ventilation and drainage diaphragm seal. The pressure of a single point supply was located on the right wing, outboard engine number four.

The fixed horizontal stabilizer, mounted atop the vertical fin, had not called standard variable geometry incidence of the disease because the lack of devices of the wing leading edge had been removed out of balance requirements normally associated with changes in tone of the latter. Its location, wing deflection and avoiding interference engine thrust, where the largest moment arm so the reduction of area required and weight. His elevator was operated manually, while the vertical fin rudder was hydraulically actuated.

The key to the design of BAe-146 was the 40-square-foot, hydraulically actuated brake petal are integral air, aero tailcone at the end of the fuselage and deployment to a maximum setting of 60 degrees. Increase slow and controlled, increasing drop rates, which allowed the aircraft to descend to 7,000 feet per minute above 10,000 feet and 4,000 feet per minute below, to facilitate the operation short of the runway and eliminating the need for investors thrust.

The aircraft is operated hydraulically, tricycle landing gear consists of a blimp, the telescope strut registered, the forward-retracting nose and two wheels displaced outboard main units that retracted into the blistering fairings on the sides of the fuselage. Featured Dunlop All wheels while the main gear brake carbon multi had only been previously employed by Concorde.

Two 3,000-psi hydraulic systems operated flaps trailing edge petal air brakes, landing gear and wheel brakes. A GTCP AiResearch Garrett Auxiliary Power Unit had provided 36-100M conditioning cab and power the starter and was operable up to 20,000 feet.

With a 84.000 pounds maximum take-off mass, the BAe-146-100 had a range 880 nautical miles, its maximum load and a wide-1620 nautical miles with maximum fuel.

First flight on September 3, 1981, at a time duration, 35 minute struggle making weight 64,000 pounds, the BAe 146-100 "was pronounced as" very stable, very sensitive, and delightfully quiet "by test driver and was awarded the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) type certificate February 4, 1983. FAA certification followed three months later, 20 May.

Dan-Air Services, SA de CV, the client the type of launch, had placed two companies and two option orders last September, and opened at the scheduled service March 1, 1983, with an intermittently provided by British Aerospace aircraft, on the London / Gatwick-Bern, Switzerland route before his own aircraft deployed on the route from 27 May. The BAe-146 was the only pure jet was capable of operating from runways short of Bern.

The larger, BAe-146-200, with a stretch of five under, a new length, overall 93.10 meters and could accommodate 100 passengers in a configuration of six per day in a seat pitch of 33 inches or a maximum of 112 in a field of 29-inches, but otherwise kept the BAe-scale 146-100. The plane, with a maximum of 93,000 pounds to make, had a range 1130 nautical miles with a full load or a range of 1570 nautical miles with fuel full.

First flight on August 1, 1982 and registered G-WISC, the rate had been inaugurated into service the following year, on June 27, by Air Wisconsin, I had placed a firm order for four aircraft and four purchase options, set to 100, May 20, 1981, the same day that the shorter variant of the fuselage had been shot at first. Joining a fleet of Fairchild Swearingen Metro IIs and De Havilland Canada DHC-7 turboprop, the BAe-146-200 were deployed on average, sectors of the 127-mile route, rarely rising more than 17,000 feet, and by the spring of 1984, had served 16 cities in the Midwest, with 14 sectors per day everyday. In the final instance, replaced the turboprop.

The largest single order for 20 firm and 25 options had been placed by another regional company U.S., Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA), while other U.S. operators had included the Pac Air Aleutian Islands, Alaska, Aspen Airways, Air-Cal, American Airlines, Discovery Airways in Hawaii, Presidential Airways, Royal West, USAir and suburban Wester.

The BAe-146 was the first pure reaction which has been certified to operate from London City STOLport, located in the port area of the region due to its ability to steep approach, performance short of the runway, and low noise.

In order to further expand its product line capability, offer enhanced passenger and better compete with the very advanced Fokker F.100 stretched, British Aerospace offers a second stretch along its original BAe-146-100, which had been forced to move 8.1 meters and 7.8 aft fuselage plugs feet compared to the BAe-146-200. The resulting version of the BAe-146-300, presented a strengthening of the center fuselage section and a new 100 feet, 8 ¼ overall length of an inch, but otherwise employees of the size of it and turbofans 502r-ALF-5. single class, five-day capacity, a seat pitch of 31 inches, had been 103, but high-density 128 passengers in a seat pitch of 29 inches, could be implemented with the addition of the Type III emergency exits installed in the center fuselage. The variation of 97.5 thousand pounds, with a range-1040 nm with a full load and a wide 1520 nautical miles with full fuel, its first flight on May 1, 1987, after the BAe-146-100 prototype (G-HFSS) were converted to this standard and registered G-LUXE again.

Air Wisconsin, once again launch customers for the version, had received its first longer fuselage BAe-146-300 on December 10 1988, one of five he had composed earlier order-200.

A freighter version, the BAe-146 Quiet Trader-QT had been available in three versions passengers. The incorporation of a higher opening, hydraulically operated, 10.11 for 6.4 feet side door in the aft, left, a reinforced floor, and a charging system, the plane, no windows for passengers and facilities could hold nine LD-3 containers or six 108-by-88 inch pallets up to 6,000 pounds each and one from 1953 to 1988 – half-inch blade. The prototype, a BAe 146-200, converted by Hayes International Corporation, its first flight on March 20, 1986 and was inaugurated into service TNT International Aviation Services the following year, on 05 May. The operator had subsequently acquired a considerable number of them.

II

A representative BAe-146-200 flight operated by Air Zimbabwe to Hwange Kariba have been adopted in September 1994.

Founded in 1967 as Air Rhodesia to operate the routes Rhodesian Central African Airways, the airline constantly changing as a result of majority rule more black, had been renamed Air Rhodesia-Zimbabwe in 1979 and, simply, Air Zimbabwe the following year after the country had attained independence. The transition period full of political instability, constant readjustment has unleashed route structure, which had only covered southern Africa.

When the internal situation ultimately was restabilized, the routing system had been gradually restored, once again offering connections between Zimbabwe and many African nations regional as well as those of Europe. In 1982, Air Zimbabwe had operated eight viscounts, three 720Bs, and three 707-320Bs, although additional 707 had been replaced later on 720.

Due to competition, deregulation generated, the company has increased its little effort to remain competitive with passenger service and a more modern, the fleet of three class A had included a BAe-146-200s, three 737-200s and two 767-200ER, serving five domestic destinations in Zimbabwe Bulawayo, Harare, Hwange, Kariba and Victoria Falls, 11 African and international destinations from Dar-es-Salaam, Durban, Gaborone, Johannesburg, Lilongwe, Lusaka, Manzini, Maputo, Mauritius, Nairobi, and Windhoek, and the three European destinations of Frankfurt, Larnaca, and London.

In June 1983, had launched a "Care Program Customer "to improve service and introduce a new Executive Business Class on two wide-body aircraft to more effectively compete with large international carriers that had operated between Europe and Africa.

He had toted three slogans: "A tradition of care" in 1989, "above all, we care" in 1992, and "Experience our Commitment to Excellence" in 1994.

Its aim had been declared free "if the airline that best suit customer needs to operate profitably and contribute to the development of Zimbabwe using the skills and talents of a workforce commitment. "

The BAe-146-200 flight of the day, registered Z-WPD and named "Jungwe," 91 is configured with a single class, seats six a day and had been equipped passengers with an audio system. Routed from Victoria Falls to Hwange, Kariba and Harare with the flight number "of UM 229," which operates three sectors covering 30 minutes, an hour and 45 minutes.

After boarding the sole terminal through an interest, left AirStar, the high wing, with four regional jet engine British sports colors with stripes of black, red, yellow and green, executed a roll over taxi on the runway of concrete lined on both sides by the Hwange National Park is dry, brown grass and bushes extensions, regularly interspersed with feeding herds of impala.

At the end of his "before takeoff" checklist, and extending its trailing edge to the position Fowler flaps 24 degrees, the plane strangled acceleration in their role, their ALF four turbofans 502r-5 35 500 kilos boost their masses with their 6970 pounds of thrust in the rate of generation of life. Building it same in the rotation at 112 knots with a lift hinged horizontal tail, the BAe-146 gave himself the warm atmosphere of Africa to a 118-knot speed V2, retract its tricycle landing gear and accelerate through a 171-knot speed toward the ceiling VFTO gray, dark.

Leaning on a bench right on the extension coffee and cinnamon Africa at 4,200 feet, the BAe-146 is retracted fins of 24 – to 0-degree, completing his "after takeoff" checklist. Ascending through 7,600 feet, when he had been a field of 291-knot speed recorded, maintained a rate of climb of 1800 feet per minute. Its NAV indicates a distance of 135.4 kilometers of Kariba.

Falling through the dark dirty opaque 15,780 meters, 229 struggle triumphed over white appearance mountain clusters, now without restriction through vignettes purity illustriously-blue afternoon in 18 640 feet.

Inching the throttle back a moment later, the British regional lining settled in their level of 21,000 feet from a plateau to ground speed 354-knot with the remaining 97.7 miles to your destination.

Cab service in the domestic sector of an hour he had included a selection of soft drinks, mineral water, orange juice and lemonade and a snack treat potato chips and peanuts.

The ground speed was 411 knots pinnacle.

Decline, which began with 54 miles left on his flight plan had been reached by dialing 5,500 feet in "the cabin of ALT SEL" autopilot, giving rise to 2,000 feet per minute descent rate.

To surrender once again to the thick darkness, with reference to the loss of cloud cover, the plane crashed at 10,000 feet at 260 knots with 21 miles remaining Kariba, extending its air brake petal to 7,000 feet, resulting in a very controlled, but drag induced profile. an altitude of 4,500 feet had been intermittent marking the "ALT SEL" window.

Coming out of the fog on the roof of Lake Kariba blue baby, which had been noted for its dry, cinnamon and coffee bushes coast, the captain looked at his letter flap landing weight for 34.500 kilos.

Extending their fins in the Fowler position of 18 degrees 3600 meters, at which time had run 6.4 miles on your flight plan, the plane dropped its landing gear at a speed of 162-knot ground and actuating devices high elevation in position 24 degrees, while an arc on the left bank of the extent of parched desert. Black mountain silhouettes in the light sheet in front of the cabin windows.

Descending through 2,600 feet in a 161-knot ground speed, the BAe-146-200, now sporting the end cap 33 degrees external maintained a heading of 270 degrees, the runway, plowed apparently the straw brown, visible through the windshield.

Expanding brake petals air to 60 degrees position, the aircraft, an insignificant drop rate, went down the runway 27 threshold at 120 knots, and this hinders the throttle and burn contact the main landing gear sizzilingly hot concrete. significant deceleration brake applications, and with his driving and deployed wing The "LIFT SPLR position, the drive inverter-free quad-jet centerline consumes your nose wheel until it had reached its limit and could execute a 180 degree turn.

Taxiing to the ramp of the only terminal in the middle of sweltering 94 degrees heat, high wing, T-tail aircraft, although usually tiny next to a widebody intercontinental outweighed the United Air PA-23 Aztec and collection of private pistons now stationed around it.

The BAe-146 had, as evidenced by this sector, Zimbabwe serves as a link between their cities often cut off from roads and communities.

III

Although the British Aerospace BAe-146 had sold only 219 examples of all versions at 45 airlines in the world, however, had formed the basis of later, more advanced power Textron Lycoming LF507 Avro RJ70, RJ85 and RJ100 derivatives.

About the Author

A graduate of Long Island University-C.W. Post Campus with a summa-cum-laude BA Degree in Comparative Languages and Journalism, I have subsequently earned the Continuing Community Education Teaching Certificate from the Nassau Association for Continuing Community Education (NACCE) at Molloy College, the Travel Career Development Certificate from the Institute of Certified Travel Agents (ICTA) at LIU, and the AAS Degree in Aerospace Technology at the State University of New York – College of Technology at Farmingdale. Having amassed almost three decades in the airline industry, I managed the New York-JFK and Washington-Dulles stations at Austrian Airlines, created the North American Station Training Program, served as an Aviation Advisor to Farmingdale State University of New York, and created and taught the Airline Management Certificate Program at the Long Island Educational Opportunity Center. A freelance author, I have written some 70 books of the short story, novel, nonfiction, essay, poetry, article, log, curriculum, training manual, and textbook genre in English, German, and Spanish, having principally focused on aviation and travel, and I have been published in book, magazine, newsletter, and electronic Web site form. I am a writer for Cole Palen’s Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome in New York.

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